Pinus sylvestris

Germany 851 19

Scotch Pine, Scots Pine

In Stock: 2.306 lb (Total:2.306lb)
  • Pinus sylvestris Germany

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2.31 lb


Germination test:
Seeds per lb:
2.31 lb
Collected in:
Crop year:
Min. hardiness zone:
Item ID:

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Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Colombia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey

Growing Info

Scarification: Soak in water, let stand in water for 24 hours
Stratification: cold stratify for 90 days
Germination: sow seed 1/4" deep, tamp the soil, mulch the seed bed

The Scots Pine, also known as Pinus sylvestris, is a native pine tree found in northern Europe. It plays a vital role in forestry, with its wood being used for pulp and sawn timber products. This tree was one of the first to be introduced to North America in the early 1600s. It is incredibly adaptable, thriving in various soil conditions.

With a height of up to 25 meters and a trunk diameter of 1 meter when mature, the Scots Pine is an evergreen coniferous tree. In exceptional cases, it can reach heights of 35-45 meters. The bark is thick and dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, while it becomes thin, flaky, and orange on the upper trunk and branches. The mature tree has a unique appearance, characterized by a long, straight trunk topped with a rounded or flat-topped mass of foliage. Scots Pine has a lifespan of 150-300 years, with some recorded specimens in Sweden living for over 700 years.

The shoots of this tree are light brown, displaying a spiral pattern of scale-like leaves. The leaves, commonly known as needles, have a glaucous blue-green color and can turn darker green or dark yellow-green in winter. They measure 2.5-5 cm in length and 1-2 mm in breadth. The Scots Pine produces fascicles of two needles, with a persistent grey basal sheath. On younger trees, the leaves can be twice as long and occasionally occur in fascicles of three or four at the tips of strong shoots. Leaf persistence varies depending on the climate, ranging from two to four years in warmer regions and up to nine years in subarctic areas. Seedlings up to one year old have juvenile leaves, which are single, flattened, and feature a serrated margin, growing up to 2-3 cm in length.

The seed cones of the Scots Pine are initially red, then turn pale brown. In their first year, they are globose and measure 4-8 mm in diameter. By the second year, the cones expand to their full size—pointed ovoid-conic, green, and later maturing to grey-green or yellow-brown. They can reach lengths of 3-7.5 cm, and their cone scales have a flat to pyramidal apophysis, often with a small prickle on the umbo. The blackish seeds have a length of 3-5 mm and are accompanied by a pale brown wing measuring 12-20 mm. The cones open in spring, 22-24 months after pollination, releasing the seeds. The pollen cones, on the other hand, are yellow, occasionally pink, and typically measure 8-12 mm in length. Pollen release occurs in mid to late spring.

In terms of taxonomy, there have been over 100 described varieties of the Scots Pine. However, only three or four are currently accepted due to minimal morphological differences. Genetic analysis and resin composition are more effective for distinguishing between these varieties. The range of this tree's population in westernmost Scotland is genetically distinct from the rest of Scotland and northern Europe, although not enough to be classified as a separate botanical variety. Trees in the far north of its range were sometimes referred to as var. lapponica, but the differences are clinal and not genetically distinct.

The Scots Pine grows extensively across Europe and Asia, ranging from Ireland and Great Britain to eastern Siberia. Its habitat extends south to the Caucasus Mountains and even within the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia, specifically Lapland. It can be found at sea level up to 1,000 meters in the north of its range and at altitudes between 1,200 and 2,600 meters in the south. The tree stands out with its fairly short, blue-green leaves and distinctive orange-red bark.

For more information on the Scots Pine, visit http://plants.usda.gov.

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