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Scarification: Soak in water, let stand in water for 24 hours
Stratification: cold stratify for 30 days
Germination: sow seed 1/4" deep, tamp the soil, mulch the seed bed
Pinus nigra, also known as the Austrian pine or black pine, is a versatile and fast-growing species of pine tree native to southern Mediterranean Europe. It can be found across a wide range of elevations, from sea level to 2,000 meters. This evergreen tree can reach impressive heights of 20 to 55 meters and can spread up to 20 to 40 feet wide. The bark of the Austrian pine is gray to yellow-brown and becomes increasingly fissured with age. The leaves, or needles, are thinner and more flexible in western populations of the tree.
Austrian pines are known for their durability and resistance to harsh conditions. They require full sun and are intolerant of shade. They are also highly resistant to snow, ice, and salt spray, making them ideal for planting as street trees or in areas exposed to harsh weather conditions. Additionally, Austrian pines have intermediate drought tolerance, making them suitable for a range of climates.
The lumber of the Austrian pine is highly prized for rough carpentry and furniture. In the US and Canada, it is often planted as a street tree and as an ornamental tree in gardens and parks due to its resistance to salt spray and various industrial pollutants. In the UK, it is commonly planted as an ornamental tree. Austrian pines have even been successfully planted as far north as Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
In addition to its practical uses, the Austrian pine is also valued for its aesthetic qualities. It has a rounded conic form when young, which becomes more irregular as the tree ages. The tree can live for several hundred years, with some specimens being over 500 years old.
Overall, the Austrian pine is a versatile, durable, and attractive tree that is well-suited for a variety of landscaping and gardening purposes.