Scarification: Soak in water, let stand in water for 24 hours
Stratification: none required
Germination: sow seed 1/16" deep, tamp the soil, mulch the seed bed
Ulmus glabra, also known as Wych Elm or Scotch Elm, is a large, deciduous tree with a wide range throughout Europe and Asia. It can grow up to 40 meters high with a broad crown and supple young shoots. Its leaves are alternate, deciduous, and ovate with a lop-sided base. The hermaphrodite flowers appear in clusters before the leaves in early spring and are wind-pollinated. The fruit is a winged samara with a single seed in the center. It is a moderately shade-tolerant tree that prefers moist soils and high humidity. While susceptible to Dutch elm disease, it is less favored by elm bark beetles. Wych Elm wood is prized by craftsmen for its unique markings and color. Regeneration of the tree is limited, making it uncommon over much of its former range. However, it can be propagated from seed or by layering stooled stock plants. Despite its decline, it remains abundant in some areas, including in Edinburgh where it was widely planted in the 19th century.