Scarification: Soak in water, let stand in water for 24 hours
Stratification: cold stratify for 60 days
Germination: sow seed 1/4" deep, tamp the soil, mulch the seed bed
Malus pumila var. Antonovka, also known as Antonovka Apple, is a cold hardy rootstock for grafting that is mainly grown in North America. Its fruit is edible, whether raw, cooked, or fermented into cider. Antonovka is a group of late-fall or early-winter apple cultivars renowned for their strong acid flavour. This cultivar is popular in Russia for its superior preservation qualities and ability to sustain long harsh winters. Its leaves contain an antibacterial substance called 'phloretin' which inhibits the growth of bacteria. Antonovka is more adapted to wet soils than most apple rootstocks and is used widely as a rootstock for cultivated apples. It is a deciduous tree that grows up to 23 feet in height, with flowers blooming in April. Antonovka Apple has been praised in literature, including Ivan Bunin's short story of the same name. This versatile cultivar is perfect for harsh, colder regions and offers a delicious taste and medicinal properties.