Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden
Scarification: Soak in cold water, let stand in water for 24 hours|Soak in water, let stand in water for 24 hours
Stratification: warm stratify for 120 days, cold stratify for 120 days
Germination: sow seed 3/8" deep, tamp the soil, mulch the seed bed| sow seed 1/4" deep, tamp the soil, mulch the seed bed
Other: Seeds could take extended time to germinate, up to 18 months.
Crataegus douglasii, also known as Black Hawthorn, Douglas Hawthorn, Douglas' thornapple, or River Hawthorn, is a thorny shrub native to northern and western North America, particularly abundant in the Pacific Northwest. The plant was named after David Douglas, who collected seed during his botanical explorations. Covered in fan-shaped green leaves with teeth along the edges, this compact erect bushy shrub also produces one to two centimeter-long thorns along its branches. White flowers with green centers grow in bunches at the ends of each thin branch, followed by a very dark purple pome fruit, around one centimeter in diameter, which was a good source of food for Native American peoples such as the Cheyenne and Nlaka'pamux. The fruit has a pleasant flavor and can be eaten raw, cooked, dried, or used for making pies, preserves, etc. This plant is easily grown in a variety of soils and prefers a well-drained, moisture-retentive, loamy soil. Once established, it can tolerate extremes of soil moisture and sunlight exposure. The wood of this plant is heavy, hard, and tough and can be used for making tool handles, mallets, and other small items. This species is also traditionally used as a heart tonic in herbal medicine, with the flowers and fruits having a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. Overall, this is a versatile and easily cultivated shrub with multiple uses.